Khamis, 31 Mac 2011

Sejarah dan peringkat awal PLKN (english version) rujukan semua Jl

The program is split into 4 official modules:

Physical Module (Fizikal) - Marching (Kawat), hand to hand combat (Tempur Tanpa Senjata, largely similar to taekwondo), Colt M16 usage[5], obstacle courses (Kembara Halangan), abseilling (Tali Tinggi), Flying Fox, canoeing (Kayak), camping ("Wirajaya") (During Wirajaya, trainees will be also given mock missions such as:Search and rescue, night patrols, perimeter Guard, first aid and at night trainees have to guard their company flag from being stolen by instructors of other companies who would infiltrate their opponent companies' bases) Navigation (Navigasi), survival training and first aid training.
Nation Building Module (Kenegaraan) - Classroom based. Nation's history, sovereignty and dignity, Malaysia and international affairs, Defence and National Security and Citizen's responsibility to the nation, and loyalty towards the current government, Barisan Nasional. The classes are based on group based training (Latihan Dalam Kumpulan).
Character Building Module (Pembinaan Karakter) - Classroom based. It comprises 2 modules. The first one, Module A speaks about Bringing Out The Best In Me while the second module, Module B, relates to Bringing Out The Best In Others. This component is experential based and relies on games and activities as the means of teaching. It is about instilling good values and Self-confidence, leadership and self-evaluation. According to participants, the Character Building classes are monotonous and they are taught how to juggle balls. Parents have speculated that there is no correlation between character and ball juggling.
Community Service Module (Khidmat Komuniti) - Trainees are sent in groups to places in surrounding areas to give the trainees a chance to serve society. This is about building and restoring public amenities. It also teaches them environmental restoration and protection as well.
In the 2004 program, conscripts (referred to as "trainees" or "Wira" for boys and "Wirawati" for girls) spent 2 months in physical training camp, followed by a final month in a university setting. The program consisted of three separate, overlapping batches. The first batch of 24,000 began in mid-February and ended in the beginning of May, while the second and third batches began in March and ended in June. Trainees were divided among 79 training camps scattered all over the country. Each camp was supposed to contain a good mix of youth from different ethnic groups and locations.

[edit] Budget and Spending
Trainees were initially given a RM300 allowance by the government. Beginning in January 2008, this amount has been raised to RM150/month, or RM450 total.[6] Trainee allowances come in the form of a Sijil Simpanan Premium (Premium Savings Certificate) from Bank Simpanan Nasional, or an account with Bank Pertanian Malaysia. The accounts with Bank Pertanian Malaysia have been criticized for taking out RM 20 from each account, for processing and ATM card fees.

According to Deputy Defence Minister Datuk Wira Abu Seman Yusop, RM2.37bil has been spent to finance the national service (NS) programme since it was introduced in 2004. RM608.6mil was spent in 2004, RM604.8mil in 2005, RM588.2mil in 2006 and RM565mil in 2007. Defence Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak had said earlier that the programme would not exceed RM500mil a year.

Year Budget[7] (RM)
Total RM2.37 bil
2008 TBA
2007 565.0 mil
2006 588.2 mil
2005 604.8 mil
2004 608.6 mil

[edit] List of National Service Training Camps
There are many National Service training camps in every state in Malaysia except the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya.

Initially, the program involved a two-month placement in a rural outdoor camp, followed by one month in an urban setting (a university, or sport facility). Following university complaints of vandalism, the urban setting placement was discontinued after the 2004 program. The canvas tents in the outdoor camps that housed 10 trainees each were replaced with concrete dormitories that housed 20 trainees each. Presently, trainees are now housed at only one location throughout the duration of the program.

State Location Camp
Johor Mersing Pusat Bina Semangat YPJ
Mersing Kem Rekreasi Pertanian Teluk Sari
Pagoh Nasuha Camp
Desaru Kem Desaru Gerak Khas
Batu Pahat Semberong Camp
Kluang Kem PLKN Pth Padang Hijau
Tangkak PLKN Kem Sri Ledang
Kedah Langkawi Beringin Beach Resort Camp
Sik Rimba Taqwa Camp
Kuala Nerang Dusun Resort Camp
Kulim PLKN Bukit Besar Camp
Merbok Damai Park Resort Camp
Sintok PLKN Universiti Utara Malaysia Sintok Camp
Baling Kem Rekreasi Belia
Langkawi Kem Lagenda Seri Negeri
Kubang Pasu Sri Kandi Camp
Kubang Pasu Gardenia Camp
Kubang Pasu D' Jelapang Camp
Kelantan Pasir Puteh Kisana Beach Resort Camp
Gua Musang Etnobotani Training Camp
Pasir Mas Cancun Park Camp
Kuala Krai Batu Jong Training Camp
Melaka Masjid Tanah Warisan Camp
Ayer Keroh Ayer Keroh Recreational Park Camp
Pekan Asahan, Jasin Kem Lagenda Gunung Ledang, Asahan
Alor Gajah Kem PLKN Putra-Putri
Negeri Sembilan Jempol De Bana Camp
Rembau Ulu Pari Camp
Port Dickson PDS Resort Camp
Kuala Pilah Karisma Camp
Mantin Seri Perkasa Camp
Rembau Titian Bintagor
Tanjung Tuan Rachado Bay Camp
Pahang Raub Benum Hill Resort Camp
Bandar Muadzam Shah Pinggiran Pelangi Camp
Kuala Rompin Summerset Resort Camp
Lake Chini Lake Chini Resort Camp
Gambang Gambang Camp (Agro Resort Sungai Semuji)
Cherating Kem Cahaya Gemilang
Pekan Semarak Camp
Bentong Chamang Camp
Penang Sungai Bakap Sri Impian Camp
Bukit Mertajam Syruz Camp
Perak Manjung Kem Akademi Kepimpinan Segari
Air Tawar PLKN Kem Kg Baharu (De Air' Resort)
Sungai Siput Terkok Camp
Lumut Teluk Rubiah Camp
Gopeng Kem Taman Kepimpinan Gemilang
Selama Tegas Mesra Camp
Chenderiang Sentosa Camp
Gunung Semanggol Jiwa Murni Camp
Perlis Wang Kelian Tasik Meranti Camp
Beseri Tasoh Camp
Padang Besar Guar Chenderai Camp
Sabah Sandakan Bagai Budi Resort Camp
Tuaran KK Dibawah Bayu Camp
Sipitang Kubena Camp
Papar Ovai Wawasan Camp
Tawau San Shui Camp
Kota Belud Sinar Jaya Camp
Tambunan Tanaki Camp
Sarawak Betong Bukit Saban Resort Camp
Miri Miri Camp, Batang Rait
Sibu Junaco Park Camp
Bintulu Similajau Camp
Serian Juara Camp
Sematan Putra Sentosa Camp
Sibu Bumimas Camp
Bau Puncak Permai Camp
Selangor Kuala Langat Paya Indah Camp
Kuala Kubu Bharu Kem Bina Semangat
Rawang Temasya Rimba Templer, Templer Park
Sepang PLKN Princess Haliza Camp
Beranang Millennium Camp
Banting Jugra Banting Camp
Behrang Geo Cosmo Camp
Semenyih PLKN Setia Ikhlas Camp
Terengganu Setiu Merang Suria Holiday Camp
Setiu Kem Peladang Setiu Agro Resort
Kemaman Cheneh Cemerlang Training Camp
Kerteh Bakau Resort Camp

[edit] Deployment
The program is staggered into several batches (kumpulan) over the year. Collectively, all batches in a year are known as a series. Batches are known as "Batch X, Series Y". For example, the pilot batch in the pilot series would be referred to as Batch 1 Series 1, while the second batch in the 2008 series would be Batch 2 Series 5.

In the 2007 program, 100,000 people will be selected out of the country's youths born in 1989. They will be placed in 79 training camps, in three different batches. Each batch will undergo three months of training. However, the 2007 batches will not overlap, as with the previous year's. Instead, the three batches will span a total of nine months. Training of the first batch started on 1 January 2007 and will end at 11 March 2007. There were delays for trainees from the East Coast due to severe flooding in the region.

Including 2008, a total of 339,186 youths have been assigned to National Service since beginning in 2004.[7] The program is run by Jabatan Latihan Khidmat Negara (JLKN) or National Service Department, a department under the Malaysian Ministry of Defence.

[edit] Criticism
See also: Conscription#Arguments_against_conscription
Despite progress towards ethnic harmony made in Malaysia in recent times it is clear that there are still problems. Outside the Human Rights Charter Contraventions, other problems are also as follows :

After the 2004 pilot batch completed their National Service, the youth wing of the MCA (Malaysian Chinese Association, Malaysia's largest ethnic Chinese party), on behalf of themselves and 8 other Chinese-based youth organizations, issued a memorandum to the National Service Training Council calling for more non-Malay trainers. They also criticised the lack of counsellors, imbalanced diet for the participants, poor communications among the various secretariats and no code of conduct for camp commandants or directors, trainers, facilitators and supervisors. Despite this somewhat diplomatic language it is clear that there is a problem with bullying by NCOs and Officers, a lack of cultural sensitivity by the Barisan political party affiliated organizers, and a reluctance to provide a proper diet for the mainly Buddhist Chinese Malaysians and Hindu Indian Malaysians.

Other main controversy issues of Malaysian National Service include the selection system where the government computer database system picks up the trainees randomly without even knowing about their social status. Some cases include poor teenagers who need to work for their living and young mothers with newborn babies who were selected for the program, which are considered as inhumane. However, selected trainees for more recent sessions with special cases can send a letter of appeal to be exempted from the training and will usually be approved

In 2005, concerns were raised in Parliament that youth were being taught to use firearms, namely M-16 rifles, in National Service. Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Razak, stated that this was merely a pilot project. However, Democratic Action Party Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Batu Gajah, Perak, claimed that the Parliamentary Select Committee on Unity and National Service had not been informed of the project. The firearms module is presently an official module in the program.

Trainees are required to submit a health status declaration form but are not required to seek qualified medical opinion in completing this declaration (unlike, for example, United States Space Camp which requires qualified medical certification of health status). Trainees are required to complete a medical checkup before entering the program, which is provided for free at major government clinics. This medical checkup, however, is not reinforced.

Despite of the numbers of fatalities and casualties among trainees, the government is still insisting to continue the program. Recently, Najib Razak had hinted that the program could be extended to 2 years, but he doubted that the parents would accept his proposal.

[edit] Official reception
The program has been plagued with claims of poor management right from its inception.[2] As of May 2008, there have been a total of 16 trainee deaths.[8]

When pressured by more calls to suspend the program due to the 16th death, Najib responded that it was not feasible to stop the program since "many parties are involved".[9]

[edit] Major Incidents

[edit] 2004
Rape, Merang Camp, Setiu, Terengganu, on 28 February. A female trainee, 17, was raped by Corporal Zuki Mohd, 30, in a Perodua Kancil in the Rhu Tapai agro-industrial estate in Setiu between 7.28pm and 9.10pm on February 28. Zuki Mohd had been employed as a physical module instructor at Merang Camp. The trial began on 14 December 2004 at the Terengganu Sessions Court, and ended on 20 December 2005. Zuki, a military personnel from Kampung Bari Besar, Setiu, was convicted of raping the girl by the Terengganu Sessions Court and was sentenced to 12 years' jail and three strokes of the rotan. The female trainee later sued the trainer as well as the government for negligence.
Lost in jungle, Ovai Wawasan Camp, Papar, Sabah, on 21 February. Around 600 trainees and instructors were lost for almost 12 hours after following the wrong trail during what was meant to be an hour-long afternoon hiking trip. Except for kitchen staff, trainees who had gone to church that day, and several staff members who stayed behind to keep an eye on camp facilities, close to the entire 600+ member camp were involved in the hiking trip. After close to 12 hours, a full name count was finally issued at 2 am..

[edit] 2005
Food poisoning, PDS Resort Camp, Port Dickson, Negri Sembilan, on 16 May. 60 trainees and instructors at Pusat Latihan Khidmat Negara, Port Dickson Camp, Negeri Sembilan.[10]
[edit] 2007
Food poisoning, Sri Impian Camp, Sungai Bakap, Penang, on 30 December. Trainees suffered food poisoning due to food served on the first day of camp, 30 December.
Lost in jungle, Kem Lagenda Gunung Ledang, Jasin, Malacca, on 30 April. Twenty-three lost their way during a jungle trekking exercise at Asahan Forest Reserve. The instructor in charge of the group was subsequently dismissed with immediate effect for negligence.[11]

[edit] 2008
High fever, Kem Desaru Gerak Khas, Kota Tinggi, Johor, on 31 May. 58 trainees came down with vomiting and high fever on 31 May, and were admitted to Kota Tinggi Hospital. The incident began when trainees began to fall sick after returning to camp on 28 May, from the Wirajaya module (a two-day jungle trekking exercise).[12]
Food poisoning, Kem Barracuda, Setiu Agro, Terengganu, on 29 May. 67 trainees developed stomachaches believed to be caused by due to food poisoning on 28 May, barely a week after nine trainees from the same camp suffered the same ailment. Fourteen trainees were warded in the Setiu Hospital, while 53 received outpatient treatment. Four food handlers at the camp also received outpatient treatments at the same hospital. The food was catered from outside, as the camp's canteen had been closed after the May 23 incident when four of the trainees were warded for food poisoning. [13]
Food poisoning, Kem Barracuda, Setiu Agro, Terrenganu, on 23 May. Nine trainees fell ill due to food poisoning, with four trainees being warded at Setiu Hospital. The camp's canteen was subsequently closed down. [14]
Outbreak of unknown fever, Kem PLKN Jiwa Murni, Semanggol, Perak, in late April. At least 10 trainees were warded at the Taiping Hospital, while 80 others were being treated at the camp, and all trainees were given blood tests, for an outbreak of an unidentified fever. The Kerian district health office placed the camp under quarantine. The quarantine was only discovered a few days after being initialized, when parents were turned away from picking up their children for a scheduled week-long break.

[edit] 2009
A 18-year-old ethnic Chinese trainee was alleged to have been sexually assaulted by more than 20 unidentified men at Lake Chini Resort Camp, Lake Chini, Pahang, on 23 June while making a call from a phone booth on camp grounds at night. Accompanied by her father, the trainee lodged a police report and underwent a medical check-up the next day and did not subsequently return to camp. As of one week later, camp authorities were purportedly pressuring the trainee to return to training.[15]
A racial brawl involving almost 100 trainees occurred in the canteen of Lake Chini Resort Camp, Lake Chini, Pahang, on 27 June following a misunderstanding arising from trainees "inadvertently [shoving] into each other" while rearranging chairs. Following this incident, 17 trainees were arrested by police and held at Pekan district police lock-up for two days before being released after meeting their parents.[16]

[edit] National Service trainee fatalities

[edit] 2004
Awang Mohd Fazil Awang Borhan, 17, attached to Kem Simalajau, Bintulu, Sarawak. Died on 23 April in a drowning accident. He had been swimming with 36 other trainees at Sungai Cina, Matang, Kuching, Sarawak.
T. Saravana, 18, attached to Kem Ethnobotany, Gua Musang, Kelantan. The trainee from Taiping, Perak drowned while picnicking at Sungai Taman Wangi, Gua Musang, about 3 kilometres from his camp, with 250 trainees and 10 trainers.

[edit] 2005
Nurul Ashikin Karino, 17, attached to Kem Shan Sui, Tawau, Sabah. Died on 14 May after being injured during training. Karino Jalani (father of the deceased) claimed that he was not allowed to meet his daughter who fell and was injured as part of a training accident.
S. Theresa Pauline, 17, attached to Kem Karisma, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan. Died on 11 June after being admitted to the hospital on 23 May due to having fits. Her death was attributed to viral meningoencephalitis. Her father, S. Sarimuthu was paid RM 32,000.[17]

[edit] 2006
Haziq Jaafar, 17, attached to Kem Padang Hijau, Kluang, Johor. The trainee from Kota Tinggi, Johor, died after a fight with another trainee at Kem Padang Hijau.

[edit] 2007
Teng Shian Shen, 18 attached to Kem Pasir Panjang, Port Dickson, Negri Sembilan. Died two weeks after being asked to return home from her training at the Pasir Panjang due to breathing difficulties.
Ili Ameera Azlan, 17, attached to Kem Ayer Keroh, Ayer Keroh, Melaka. Died on 18 January at Malacca Hospital, after suffering breathing difficulties.[18] The parents were paid RM 35,000.
Prema Elenchelian, 18, attached to Kem Kisana Beach Resort, Pasir Puteh, Kelantan. The trainee from Kajang, Selangor, was found unconscious in a toilet at Jeram Linang (0230 hours) on 1 March. She was taken to the Tengku Anis Hospital where she was pronounced dead. Prema's death brought to 12 the number of trainees who have died since the programme began in 2004.[19]
Mohd Rafi Ameer, 18, attached to Cheneh Cemerlang Camp, Kemaman, Pahang. Died at 10.30pm on 3 September, after having fever for 1 week. Rafi had previously called his sister and told her that he had a fever, and that his leg had been swollen for nearly a week after he fell during training.[20]

[edit] 2008
Too Hui Min, 18, attached to Kem Geo Kosmo, Behrang, Selangor. Died on 7 May at Slim River Hospital, Perak, three days after she started complaining of constipation. The cause of death was later determined as being toxic megacolon - her colon had been swollen and the lining had thinned due to septicemia. Her death was the 16th National Service death, and was followed by several DAP leaders calling for the suspension or even the scrapping of the National Service programme.[21][22]
Afiq Zuhairi Ahmat Rozali, 18, attached to Kem Sentosa, Chenderiang, Perak. Died on 16 April at Teluk Intan Hospital, Perak, after a brief febrile illness. He was treated by camp paramedics several times before finally being transferred to hospital where he died in less than 24 hours.[23]

edit] 2009
Abdul Malik Ishak, 18, attached to Kem Guar Chenderai, Padang Besar, Perlis. Found dead in his bed on June 29, at Kem Guar Chenderai. He had not reported any problems on his self-reported health declaration form.[24]

[edit] Summary
As of June 2008, there have been 17 deaths since the programme started in 2004, with 12 trainees dying in the camps and five more during breaks or within days of completing the program.[7]

Tiada ulasan:

Catat Ulasan